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Training to Improve Cardiovascular Therapies

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 Cardio Training Grant | Predoctoral Fellowships | Trainee Publications

Recent Publications 

Publications during Predoctoral Fellowships from the last 10 years.

Harston RK, Moschella PC, McKillop JC, Baicu CF, Balasubramanian S, Zile MR, Kuppuswamy D. Acute rapamycin treatment augments both protein ubiquitination and Akt activation in pressure overloaded rat myocardium. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011; 300(5): H1696-706. PMCID: PMC3094075.

Palatinus JA, O'Quinn MP, Barker RJ, Harris BS, Jourdan J, Gourdie RG. ZO-1 determines adherens and gap junction localization at intercalated disks. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011; 300(2): H583-94.

O’Quinn MP, Harris BS, Rhett, JM, Palatinus JA, Hewett KW, Gourdie RG. A peptide mimetic of the connexin43 carboxyl terminus reduces gap junction remodeling and induced arrhythmias following ventricular injury. Circ Res. 2011; 108(6: H704-15.

Snider AJ, Orr Gandy KA, Obeid LM. Sphingosine kinase: role of regulation of bioactive sphingolipid mediators in inflammation. Biochimie 2010; 92(6):707-15.

Rasbach KA, Funk JA, Jayavelu T, Green PT, Schnellmann RG. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010; 332(2):632-9. PMCID: PMC2812119.

Funk JA, Odejinmi S, Schnellmann RG. SRT1720 induces mitochondrial biogenesis and rescues mitochondrial function after oxidant injury in renal proximal tubule cells. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010; 333(2):593-601. PMCID: PMC2872958.

Palatinus JA, Rhett JM, Gourdie RG. Translational lessons from scarless healing of cutaneous wounds and regenerative repair of the myocardium. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010; 48(3):550-7.

Gacchina CE, Ramamurthi A. Impact of pre-existing elastic matrix on TGFbeta1 and HA oligomer-induced regenerative elastin repair by rat aortic smooth muscle cells. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2010; Jul 23 [Epub ahead of print] PMCID: PMC2964397.

Rasbach KA, Funk JA, Jayavelu T, Green PT, Schnellmann RG. 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010; 332(2):632-9. PMCID: PMC2812119.

Toole JM, Ikonomidis JS, Szeto WY, Zellner JL, Mulcahy J, Deardorff RL, Spinale FG. Selective endothelin-1 receptor type A inhibition in subjects undergoing cardiac surgery with preexisting left ventricular dysfunction: Influence on early postoperative hemodynamics. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010; 139(3):646-54. PMCID: PMC2827656.

Hsia TY, McQuinn TC, Mukherjee R, Deardorff RL, Squires JE, Stroud RE, Crawford FA, Bradley SM, Reeves ST, Spinale FG. Effects of aprotinin or tranexamic acid on proteolytic/cytokine profiles in infants after cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg. 2010; 89(6):1843-52.

McQuinn TC, Deardorff RL, Mukherjee R, Taylor AG, Graham EM, Atz AM, Forbus GA, DeSantis SM, Young JB, Stroud RE, Crawford FA, Bradley SM, Reeves ST, Spinale FG. Circulating matrix metalloproteinase levels after ventricular septal defect repair in infants. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2010; 140(6):1257-65. PMCID: PMC2972374.

Xu L, Kappler CS, Mani SK, Shepherd NR, Renaud L, Snider P, Conway SJ, Menick DR. Chronic administration of KB-R7943 induces up-regulation of cardiac NCX1. J Biol Chem. 2009; 284(40):27265-72. PMCID: PMC2785654.

Spruill LS, McDermott PJ. Role of the 5'-untranslated region in regulating translational efficiency of specific mRNAs in adult cardiocytes. FASEB J. 2009; 23(9):2879-87. PMCID: PMC2735361.

Kothapalli CR, Gacchina CE, Ramamurthi A. Utility of hyaluronan oligomers and transforming growth factor-beta1 factors for elastic matrix regeneration by aneurysmal rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Tissue Eng Part A. 2009; 15(11):3247-60. PMCID: PMC2792063.

Balasubramanian S, Johnston RK, Moschella PC, Mani SK, Tuxworth WJ Jr, Kuppuswamy D. mTOR in growth and protection of hypertrophying myocardium. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2009; 7(1):52-63.

Johnston RK, Balasubramanian S, Kasiganesan H, Baicu CF, Zile MR, Kuppuswamy D. Beta3 integrin-mediated ubiquitination activates survival signaling during myocardial hypertrophy. FASEB J. 2009; 23(8):2759-71. PMCID: PMC2717769.

Rasbach KA, Arrington DD, Odejinmi S, Giguere C, Beeson CC, Schnellmann RG. Identification and optimization of a novel inhibitor of mitochondrial calpain 10. J Med Chem. 2009; 52(1):181-8. PMCID: PMC2801808.

McEvoy MD, Sabbagh MJ, Taylor AG, Zavadzkas JA, Koval CN, Stroud RE, Ford RL, McLean JE, Reeves ST, Mukherjee R, Spinale FG. Aprotinin modifies left ventricular contractility and cytokine release following ischemia-reperfusion in a dose-dependent manner in a murine model. Anesth Analg. 2009; 108(2): 399-406.

Deardorff R, Spinale FG. Cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases as potential biomarkers in chronic heart failure. Biomark Med. 2009; 3(5):513-523. PMCID: PMC2794436.

Ghatnekar GS, O'Quinn MP, Jourdan LJ, Gurjarpadhye AA, Draughn RL, Gourdie RG. Connexin43 carboxyl-terminal peptides reduce scar progenitor and promote regenerative healing following skin wounding. Regen Med. 2009; 4(2):205-23. PMCID: PMC2720252.

Snider AJ, Kawamori T, Bradshaw SG, Orr KA, Gilkeson GS, Hannun YA, Obeid LM. A role for sphingosine kinase 1 in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. FASEB J. 2009; 23(1):143-52. PMCID: PMC2626622.

Spruill LS, Baicu CF, Zile MR, McDermott PJ. Selective translation of mRNAs in the left ventricular myocardium of the mouse in response to acute pressure overload. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2008; 44(1):69-75. PMCID: PMC2246077.

Deschamps AM, Zavadzkas J, Murphy RL, Koval CN, McLean JE, Jeffords L, Saunders SM, Sheats NJ, Stroud RE, Spinale FG. Interruption of endothelin signaling modifies membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase activity during ischemia and reperfusion. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008; 294(2):H875-83. PMCID: PMC2663358.

Spinale FG, Koval CN, Deschamps AM, Stroud RE, Ikonomidis JS. Dynamic changes in matrix metalloprotienase activity within the human myocardial interstitium during myocardial arrest and reperfusion. Circulation. 2008; 118(14 Suppl):S16-23. PMCID: PMC2663795.

Ghatnekar A, Trojanowska M. GATA-6 is a novel transcriptional repressor of the human Tenascin-C gene expression in fibroblasts. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008; 1779(3):145-51. PMCID: PMC2295212.

Sridharan V, Guichard J, Li CY, Muise-Helmericks R, Beeson CC, Wright GL. O(2)-sensing signal cascade: clamping of O(2) respiration, reduced ATP utilization, and inducible fumarate respiration. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008; 295(1):C29-37.

Hallman MA, Zhuang S, Schnellmann RG. Regulation of dedifferentiation and redifferentiation in renal proximal tubular cells by the epidermal growth factor receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008; 325(2):520-8.

Rhett JM, Ghatnekar GS, Palatinus JA, O'Quinn M, Yost MJ, Gourdie RG. Novel therapies for scar reduction and regenerative healing of skin wounds. Trends Biotechnol. 2008; 26(4):173-80.

McEvoy MD, Taylor AG, Zavadzkas JA, Mains IM, Ford RL, Stroud RE, Jeffords LB, Beck CU, Reeves ST, Spinale FG. Aprotinin exerts differential and dose-dependent effects on myocardial contractility, oxidative stress, and cytokine release after ischemia-reperfusion. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008; 86(2):568-75. PMCID: PMC2675543.

Ford RL, Mains IM, Hilton EJ, Reeves ST, Stroud RE, Crawford FA Jr, Ikonomidis JS, Spinale FG. Endothelin-A receptor inhibition after cardiopulmonary bypass: cytokines and receptor activation. Ann Thorac Surg. 2008; 86(5):1576-83. PMCID: PMC2671963.

Willey CD, Palanisamy AP, Johnston RK, Mani SK, Shiraishi H, Tuxworth WJ, Zile MR, Balasubramanian S, Kuppuswamy D. STAT3 activation in pressure-overloaded feline myocardium: role for integrins and the tyrosine kinase BMX. Int J Biol Sci. 2008; 4(3):184-99. PMCID: PMC2443357.

Zhuang S, Kinsey GR, Rasbach K, Schnellmann RG. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor and Src family kinases in proliferation of renal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008; 294(3):F459-68.

Rasbach KA, Schnellmann RG. Isoflavones promote mitochondrial biogenesis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008; 325(2):536-43.

Rasbach KA, Green PT, Schnellmann RG. Oxidants and Ca+2 induce PGC-1alpha degradation through calpain. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2008; 478(2):130-5. PMCID: PMC2846523.

Sabbagh MJ, Looper JM, Zavadzkas JA, Stroud RE, Ford RL, Rivers WT, Koval CN, McEvoy MD, Reeves ST, Spinale FG. Aprotinin exacerbates LV dysfunction after ischemia-reperfusion in mice lacking tumor necrosis factor receptor I. J Card Pharm. 2008; 52(4):355-62.

Rhett JM, Ghatnekar GS, Palatinus JA, O'Quinn M, Yost MJ, Gourdie RG. Novel therapies for scar reduction and regenerative healing of skin wounds. Trends Biotechnol. 2008; 26(4):173-80.

Tuxworth WJ Jr, Shiraishi H, Moschella PC, Yamane K, McDermott PJ, Kuppuswamy D. Translational activation of 5'-TOP mRNA in pressure overload myocardium. Basic Res Cardiol. 2008; 103(1):41-53.

Moschella PC, Rao VU, McDermott PJ, Kuppuswamy D. Regulation of mTOR and S6K1 activation by the nPKC isoforms, PKCepsilon and PKCdelta, in adult cardiac muscle cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2008; 43(6):754-66. PMCID: PMC2170873.

Hoover LL, Burton EG, Brooks BA, Kubalak SW. The expanding role for retinoid signaling in heart development. ScientificWorldJournal. 2008; 8:194-211. PMCID: PMC2559957

Hoover LL, Burton EG, O'Neill ML, Brooks BA, Sreedharan S, Dawson NA, Kubalak SW. Retinoids regulate TGFbeta signaling at the level of Smad2 phosphorylation and nuclear accumulation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008; 1783(12):2279-86. PMCID: PMC2596883.

Hoover LL, Kubalak SW. Holding their own: the noncanonical roles of Smad proteins. Sci Signal. 2008; 1(46):pe48. PMCID: PMC2913314.

Pruett ND, Visconti RP, Jacobs DF, Scholz D, McQuinn T, Sundberg JP, Awgulewitsch A. Evidence for Hox-specified positional identities in adult vasculature. BMC Dev Biol. 2008; 8:93. PMCID: PMC2570687.

Snarr BS, Kern CB, Wessels A. Origin and fate of cardiac mesenchyme. Dev Dyn. 2008; 237(10):2804-19.

Argraves KM, Gazzolo PJ, Groh EM, Wilkerson BA, Matsuura BS, Twal WO, Hammad SM, Argraves WS. High density lipoprotein-associated sphingosine 1-phosphate promotes endothelial barrier function. J Biol Chem. 2008; 283(36):25074-81.

Spruill LS, Lowry AS, Stroud RE, Squires CE, Mains IM, Flack EC, Beck C, Ikonomidis JS, Crumbley AJ, McDermott PJ, Spinale FG. Membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase transcription and translation in myocardial fibroblasts from patients with normal left ventricular function and from patients with cardiomyopathy. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007; 293(4):C1362-73.

White SJ, Kasman LM, Kelly MM, Lu P, Spruill L, McDermott PJ, Voelkel-Johnson C. Doxorubicin generates a proapoptotic phenotype by phosphorylation of elongation factor 2. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007; 43(9):1313-21.

Sridharan V, Guichard J, Bailey RM, Kasiganesan H, Beeson C, Wright GL. The prolyl hydroxylase oxygen-sensing pathway is cytoprotective and allows maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential during metabolic inhibition. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007; 292(2):C719-28.

Menick DR, Renaud L, Buchholz A, Müller JG, Zhou H, Kappler CS, Kubalak SW, Conway SJ, Xu L. Regulation of Ncx1 gene expression in the normal and hypertrophic heart. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007; 1099:195-203.

Snarr BS, Wirrig EE, Phelps AL, Trusk TC, Wessels A. A spatiotemporal evaluation of the contribution of the dorsal mesenchymal protrusion to cardiac development. Dev Dyn. 2007; 236(5):1287-94.

Wirrig EE, Snarr BS, Chintalapudi MR, O'neal JL, Phelps AL, Barth JL, Fresco VM, Kern CB, Mjaatvedt CH, Toole BP, Hoffman S, Trusk TC, Argraves WS, Wessels A. Cartilage link protein 1 (Crtl1), an extracellular matrix component playing an important role in heart development. Dev Biol. 2007; 310(2):291-303.

Snarr BS, O'Neal JL, Chintalapudi MR, Wirrig EE, Phelps AL, Kubalak SW, Wessels A. Isl1 expression at the venous pole identifies a novel role for the second heart field in cardiac development. Circ Res. 2007; 101(10):971-4.

Spruill LS, Lowry AS, Stroud RE, Squires CE, Mains IM, Flack EC, Beck C, Ikonomidis JS, Crumbley AJ, McDermott PJ, Spinale FG. Membrane-type-1 matrix metalloproteinase transcription and translation in myocardial fibroblasts from patients with normal left ventricular function and from patients with cardiomyopathy. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007; 293(4):C1362-73.

Rasbach KA, Schnellmann RG. Signaling of mitochondrial biogenesis following oxidant injury. J Biol Chem. 2007; 282(4):2355-62.

Rasbach KA, Schnellmann RG. PGC-1alpha over-expression promotes recovery from mitochondrial dysfunction and cell injury. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007; 355(3):734-9.

Balasubramanian S, Mani S, Shiraishi H, Johnston RK, Yamane K, Willey CD, Cooper G 4th, Tuxworth WJ, Kuppuswamy D. Enhanced ubiquitination of cytoskeletal proteins in pressure overloaded myocardium is accompanied by changes in specific E3 ligases. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2006; 41(4):669-79.

Xu L, Renaud L, Müller JG, Baicu CF, Bonnema DD, Zhou H, Kappler CS, Kubalak SW, Zile MR, Conway SJ, Menick DR. Regulation of Ncx1 expression. Identification of regulatory elements mediating cardiac-specific expression and up-regulation. J Biol Chem. 2006; 281(45):34430-40.

Spruill LS, McDermott PJ. Regulation of c-jun mRNA expression in adult cardiocytes by MAP kinase interacting kinase-1 (MNK1). FASEB J. 2006; 20(12):2133-5.

Deschamps AM, Spinale FG. Pathways of matrix metalloproteinase induction in heart failure: bioactive molecules and transcriptional regulation. Cardiovasc Res. 2006; 69(3):666-76.

Apple KA, Yarbrough WM, Mukherjee R, Deschamps AM, Escobar PG, Mingoia JT, Sample JA, Hendrick JW, Dowdy KB, McLean JE, Stroud RE, O'Neill TP, Spinale FG. Selective targeting of matrix metalloproteinase inhibition in post-infarction myocardial remodeling. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2006; 47(2):228-35.

Apple KA, McLean JE, Squires CE, Schaeffer B, Sample JA, Murphy RL, Deschamps AM, Leonardi AH, Allen CM, Hendrick JW, Stroud RE, Mukherjee R, Spinale FG. Differential effects of protein kinase C isoform activation in endothelin-mediated myocyte contractile dysfunction with cardioplegic arrest and reperfusion. Ann Thorac Surg. 2006; 82(2):664-71.

Moralez I, Phelps A, Riley B, Raines M, Wirrig E, Snarr B, Jin JP, Van Den Hoff M, Hoffman S, Wessels A. Muscularizing tissues in the endocardial cushions of the avian heart are characterized by the expression of h1-calponin. Dev Dyn. 2006; 235(6):1648-58.

Gourdie RG, Ghatnekar GS, O'Quinn M, Rhett JM, Barker RJ, Zhu C, Jourdan J, Hunter AW. The unstoppable connexin43 carboxyl-terminus: new roles in gap junction organization and wound healing. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006; 1080:49-62.

Lindsey ML, Escobar GP, Mukherjee R, Goshorn DK, Sheats NJ, Bruce JA, Mains IM, Hendrick JK, Hewett KW, Gourdie RG, Matrisian LM, Spinale FG. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 affects connexin-43 levels, electrical conduction, and survival after myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2006; 113(25):2919-28.

Potter CS, Peterson RL, Barth JL, Pruett ND, Jacobs DF, Kern MJ, Argraves WS, Sundberg JP, Awgulewitsch A. Evidence that the satin hair mutant gene Foxq1 is among multiple and functionally diverse regulatory targets for Hoxc13 during hair follicle differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2006; 281(39):29245-55.

Xu L, Kappler CS, Menick DR. The role of p38 in the regulation of Na+-Ca2+ exchanger expression in adult cardiomyocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2005; 38(5):735-43.

Jenkins SJ, Hutson DR, Kubalak SW. Analysis of the proepicardium-epicardium transition during the malformation of the RXRalpha-/- epicardium. Dev Dyn. 2005; 233(3):1091-101.

Deschamps AM, Spinale FG. Disruptions and detours in the myocardial matrix highway and heart failure. Curr Heart Fail Rep. 2005; 2(1):10-7.

Deschamps AM, Apple KA, Leonardi AH, McLean JE, Yarbrough WM, Stroud RE, Clark LL, Sample JA, Spinale FG. Myocardial interstitial matrix metalloproteinase activity is altered by mechanical changes in LV load: interaction with the angiotensin type 1 receptor. Circ Res. 2005; 96(10):1110-8.

Deschamps AM, Spinale FG. Matrix modulation and heart failure: new concepts question old beliefs. Curr Opin Cardiol. 2005; 20(3):211-6.

Peterson RL, Tkatchenko TV, Pruett ND, Potter CS, Jacobs DF, Awgulewitsch A. Epididymal cysteine-rich secretory protein 1 encoding gene is expressed in murine hair follicles and downregulated in mice overexpressing Hoxc13. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2005; 10(3):238-42.

Deschamps AM, Yarbrough WM, Squires CE, Allen RA, McClister DM, Dowdy KB, McLean JE, Mingoia JT, Sample JA, Mukherjee R and Spinale FG. Trafficking of the membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) in ischemia in reperfusion: Relation to interstitial MT1-MMP activity. Circulation 111(9):1166-74, 2005.

Stroud RE, Deschamps AM, Lowry AS, Hardin AE, Mukherjee R, Lindsey ML, Ramamoorthy S, Zile MR, Spencer WH and Spinale FG. Plasma monitoring of the myocardial specific tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4 following alcohol septal ablation in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. J Cardiac Failure 11(2):124-30, 2005.

Sporici RA, Hodskins JS, Locasto DM, Meszaros LB, Ferry AL, Weidner AM, Rinehart CA, Bailey JC, Mains IM and Diamond SE. Repression of the prolactin promoter: a functional consequence of the heterodimerization between Pit-1 and Pit-1 beta. J Mol Endocrinol. 35(2):317-31, 2005.

Squires CE, Escobar GP, Payne JF, Leonardi RA, Goshorn DK, Sheats NJ, Mains IM, Mingoia JT, Flack EC and Lindsey ML. Altered fibroblast function following myocardial infarction. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 39(4):699-707, 2005.

Norris RA, Kern CB, Wessels A, Wirrig EE, Markwald RR and Mjaatvedt CH. Detection of betaIg-H3, a TGFbeta induced gene, during cardiac development and its complementary pattern with periostin. Anatomy and Embryology 210:13-23, 2005.

Argraves KM, Wilkerson BA, Argraves WS, Fleming PA, Obeid LM, Drake CJ. Sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling promotes critical migratory events in vasculogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2004; 279(48):50580-90.

Tuxworth WJ Jr, Saghir AN, Spruill LS, Menick DR, McDermott PJ. Regulation of protein synthesis by eIF4E phosphorylation in adult cardiocytes: the consequence of secondary structure in the 5'-untranslated region of mRNA. Biochem J. 2004; F378(Pt 1):73-82.

Pruett ND, Tkatchenko TV, Jave-Suarez L, Jacobs DF, Potter CS, Tkatchenko AV, Schweizer J, Awgulewitsch A. Krtap16, characterization of a new hair keratin-associated protein (KAP) gene complex on mouse chromosome 16 and evidence for regulation by Hoxc13. J Biol Chem. 2004; 279(49):51524-33.

Mukherjee R, Brinsa TA, Dowdy KB, Scott AA, Baskin JM, Deschamps AM, Lowry AS, Escobar GP, Lucas DG, Yarbrough WM, Zile MR, Spinale FG. Myocardial infarct expansion and matrix metalloproteinase inhibition. Circulation. 2003; 107(4):618-25.

Chapman RE, Scott AA, Deschamps AM, Lowry AS, Stroud RE, Ikonomidis JS, Spinale FG. MMP abundance in human myocardial fibroblasts: effects of sustained pharmacologic matrix metalloproteinase inhibition. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2003; 35(5):539-48.

Wilson EM, Moainie SL, Baskin JM, Lowry AS, Deschamps AM, Mukherjee R, Guy TS, St John-Sutton MG, Gorman JH 3rd, Edmunds LH Jr, Gorman RC, Spinale FG. Region- and type-specific induction of matrix metalloproteinases in post-myocardial infarction remodeling. Circulation. 2003; 107(22):2857-63.

Shang L, Pruett ND, Awgulewitsch A. Hoxc12 expression pattern in developing and cycling murine hair follicles. Mech Dev. 2002; 113(2):207-10.

Menick DR, Xu L, Kappler CS, Jiang W, Withers PR, Shepherd N, Conway SJ and Muller JG. Pathways Regulating Na+-Ca2+Exchanger Expression in the Heart. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 976: 237-247, 2002.

Muller JG, Isomatsu Y, Koushik SV, OQuinn M, Xu L, Kappler CS, Hapke E, Zile MR, Conway SJ and Menick DR. Cardiac-Specific Expression and Hypertrophic Upregulation of the Feline Na+-Ca2+ Exchanger Gene H1-Promoter in a Transgenic Mouse Model. Circ. Res. 90:158-164, 2002.

Xu L, Muller JG, Withers PR, Kappler CS, Jiang W and Menick DR. Role of MAP Kinases in the Na+-Ca2+ Exchanger Gene Expression in Feline Adult Cardiocytes. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 285-287, 2002.

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