Despite a strong emphasis on developing an effective pharmaceutical treatment for cocaine dependence, addiction to cocaine has proven to be very difficult to treat. One of the most powerful and addictive drugs, close to 40 million Americans age 12 and older reported having tried cocaine or crack at least once, according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. While altered brain function and structure likely contribute to the cycle of relapsing in some addicts, others are able to successfully remain abstinent. The laboratory of Colleen Hanlon, PhD, has as its overarching goal to improve substance abuse treatment outcomes through the identification and stimulation of neural circuits that are affected in chronically relapsing addicts. To achieve this goal, her group blends state-of-the-art structural and functional neuroimaging with cutting-edge brain stimulation techniques. Her laboratory also actively collaborates with investigators in several departments and colleges, including psychiatry, neurosciences, and the College of Health Professions.