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CAE | Electronic Citing - APA Guidelines

The American Psychological Association (APA) Style for Citing Electronic Sources

The following information is taken from The Bedford Handbook by Diana Hacker, who based her work on Electronic Style: A Guide to Citing Electronic Information by Xia Li and Nancy Crane. The forms below, not included in The Publication Manual of the APA, fourth edition (1994), have nevertheless been endorsed by APA.

As with any reference citation, the key is to provide the reader with clear information that will make retrieval not only possible but easy. Therefore, in addition to standard information like author, title, and publicationdate, specific information about the electronic source will be required. In the examples below, pay attention
to specific words like Online, to whether the access date--always listed last--is required, and to all punctuation marks (including brackets and parentheses).

1. Material from an Information Service or a Database

Bersoff, D.N. (1996). The virtue of principle ethics. Counseling Psychologist, 24 (1), 86-91. (ERIC Accession No. EJ 522 601)

2. CD-ROM Abstract

Cummings, A. (1995). Test review made easy [CD-ROM]. Learning, 23 (5) 68. Abstract from: ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ERIC Item: EJ 509 271.

3. World Wide Web Site

Boland, P. (No date). Alice Cunningham Fletcher [Online]. Available: [1997, March 23].

4. Online Article

Memon, A., & Stevenage, S. (1996, March). Interviewing witnesses: What works and what doesn’t? Psycoloquy [Online], 7 (6), 32 paragraphs. Available: FTP: Hostname: Directory: pub/harnad/Psycoloquy/1996.volume.7 File: psycoloquy.96.7.6.witness-memory.1.memon

5. Electronic Discussion List Message

DBWYDRA. (1997, March 21). Citing sources. Alliance for Computers and Writing Discussion List [Online]. Available E-mail: [1997, March 27].

6. E-mail

Castrodale, Beth ( (1997, February 2). Fast food survey results. E-mail to Clare Matthews (

7. Computer Program

TriplePlayPlus! [Computer software]. (1996). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Language Systems.

Developed by
Jennie Ariail, Ph.D. - Director
Tom Waldrep, Ph.D. - Director (retired)

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