Center For Academic Excellence
CAE | Electronic Citing - APA Guidelines
The American Psychological Association (APA) Style for Citing Electronic Sources
The following information is taken from The Bedford Handbook by Diana Hacker, who based her work on Electronic Style: A Guide to Citing Electronic Information by Xia Li and Nancy Crane. The forms below, not included in The Publication Manual of the APA, fourth edition (1994), have nevertheless been endorsed by APA.
As with any reference citation, the key is to provide the reader with clear information that will make retrieval not only possible but easy. Therefore, in addition to standard information like author, title, and publicationdate, specific information about the electronic source will be required. In the examples below, pay attention
to specific words like Online, to whether the access date--always listed last--is required, and to all punctuation marks (including brackets and parentheses).
1. Material from an Information Service or a Database
Bersoff, D.N. (1996). The virtue of principle ethics. Counseling Psychologist, 24 (1), 86-91. (ERIC Accession No. EJ 522 601)
2. CD-ROM Abstract
Cummings, A. (1995). Test review made easy [CD-ROM]. Learning, 23 (5) 68. Abstract from: ERIC Document Reproduction Service: ERIC Item: EJ 509 271.
3. World Wide Web Site
Boland, P. (No date). Alice Cunningham Fletcher [Online]. Available: http://vms.www.uwplatt.edu/~nicols/fletcher.html [1997, March 23].
4. Online Article
Memon, A., & Stevenage, S. (1996, March). Interviewing witnesses: What works and what doesn’t? Psycoloquy [Online], 7 (6), 32 paragraphs. Available: FTP: Hostname: princeton.edu Directory: pub/harnad/Psycoloquy/1996.volume.7 File: psycoloquy.96.7.6.witness-memory.1.memon
5. Electronic Discussion List Message
DBWYDRA. (1997, March 21). Citing sources. Alliance for Computers and Writing Discussion List [Online]. Available E-mail: ACWL@listserv.ttu.edu [1997, March 27].
Castrodale, Beth (email@example.com). (1997, February 2). Fast food survey results. E-mail to Clare Matthews (firstname.lastname@example.org).
7. Computer Program
TriplePlayPlus! [Computer software]. (1996). Syracuse, NY: Syracuse Language Systems.
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