Department of Family Medicine
Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale
Resnick, B, SI Zimmerman, D Orwig, A-L Furstenberg, J Magaziner (2000)
Background and Development:
The OEE was developed to identify elderly individuals with low expectations for the effects of exercise. Interventions can then be implemented to help these individuals strengthen their outcome expectations, which may subsequently improve exercise behavior. The OEE scale specifically focuses on the perceived consequences of exercise for older adults. The OEE consists of nine statements about the benefits of exercising. The subject is asked to rate his agreement with each statement from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree). The total score is the sum of all nine items.
Internal reliability of the scale is good (Cronbach alpha = 0.89).
Assessment in Elderly Populations:
The OEE was specifically designed for older adults and developed from a nursing home population (average age 85). Further testing in elderly populations (Resnick et al. 2001, 2004) confirms the reliability and validity of the measure.
Assessment in Minority Populations:
The OEE was tested in a population of elderly African- and Latino-Americans and found to have high reliability and validity within these populations (Resnick et al. 2004).
Harnirattisai and Johnson (2005) used the SEE in a study to examine the effects of a behavioral change intervention after knee replacement surgery in a population of older Thai adults. Resnick (2005) has since developed a second version of this scale, the Outcome Expectations for Exercise-2 Scale (OEE-2); a 13-item measure with two subscales: positive OEE and negative OEE.
Design Strengths and Weaknesses:
Consisting of only 9 items, the OEE is easy to administer and interpret. Scoring is a standard Likert scale.
The OEE is available as a table in Resnick et al. (2000) and in the appendix of Resnick et al. (2004).
Harnirattisai, T and RA Johnson (2005) Effectiveness of a Behavioral Change Intervention in Thai Elders After Knee Replacement. Nursing Research. 54(2):97-107.
Resnick, B, SI Zimmerman, D Orwig, A-L Furstenberg, J Magaziner (2000) Outcome expectations for Exercise Scale: Utility and psychometrics. Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. Vol 55B(6) S352-S356.
Resnick, B, SI Zimmerman, D Orwig, A-L Furstenberg, J Magaziner (2001) Model testing for reliability and validity of the outcome expectations for exercise scale. Nursing Research. Vol 50(5) 293-299.
Resnick, B., D. Luisi, A. Vogel, and P. Junaleepa (2004). Reliability and validity of the self-efficacy for exercise and outcome expectations for exercise scales with minority older adults. J Nursing Res. 12(3): 235-247.
Resnick, B (2005) Reliability and Validity of the Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale-2. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. Vol 13(4) 382-394.