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Osteoporosis Self-Efficacy Scale


Horan ML, Kim KK, Gendler P, Froman RD, Patel MD (1998)

Background and Development:

The Osteoporosis Self-Efficacy Scale was developed as a measure of self-efficacy, or confidence, for behaviors related to physical activity and calcium intake.  The final version of the scale contains items reflecting initiation, maintenance, and persistence at osteoporosis preventive behaviors.

The format is a visual analog in which the lower anchor of a 10 cm line was "not at all confident" and the upper end was "very confident". The phrase “If it were recommended that you do any of the following this week, how confident would you be that you could” was used as the stem for the 21 items on the scale. The degree of confidence was measured to the nearest 1 mm.  Ten items deal with exercise levels and eleven items involve dietary calcium intake.  The items load on two factors (Exercise and Calcium) with Cronbach alphas of 0.94 and 0.93, respectively.  The subscores of OSE-Exercise and OSE-Calcium are the mean of the items for each factor.

Concurrent data on sport, leisure, and exercise activity and calcium in diet and dietary supplements were collected from the respondents. The incremental validity analyses showed consistently that self-efficacy scores offered additional explanations of the criterion variables of physical exercise and calcium intake beyond an individual's biographics, experiences, and physiology.

Assessment in Elderly Populations:

The women in the initial study ranged in age from 35 to 95 (mean 56).  None of them currently had osteoporosis.

Assessment in Minority Populations:

The OSE has not been tested specifically in minority populations.

Subsequent Studies:

Sedlak et al. (2000) used the OSE to assess the knowledge among older men of osteoporosis prevention.

Design Strengths and Weaknesses:

The OSE is designed and has been used esclusively to assess patient knowledge about osteoporosis prevention methods.  Several studies have been conducted to assess the knowledge of nursing students.  The scale does not assess self-efficacy with dealing with the needs of patients who currently have osteoporosis.

Contact Information:

The items of the OSE are available as a table in Horan et al. (1998).


Horan ML. Kim KK. Gendler P. Froman RD. Patel MD. Development and evaluation of the Osteoporosis Self-Efficacy Scale. Research in Nursing & Health. 21(5):395-403, 1998

Sedlak CA. Doheny MO. Estok PJ. Osteoporosis in older men: knowledge and health beliefs. Orthopaedic Nursing. 19(3):38-42, 44-6, 2000

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