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Department of Family Medicine

Neck Pain or Dysfunction Tools

General Review

An excellent general review of the following five standard scales is provided by Pietrobon et al. (2002). These scales and others can be accessed from Duke University's Center of Excellence in Surgical Outcomes. Under the heading "Digital Surveillance and Grant Proposals" click on "Outcome scales repository".

Neck Disability Index

  • Authors: Vernon H., S. Mior (1991)
  • Administration: 10-item questionnaire.
  • Constructs Measured: Designed to assess neck pain and disability. Scored using a percentage of the maximal pain and disability.
  • Reliability and Validity: Index scores correlated well (0.6-0.7) with other indices of neck disability. The index appears to have a ceiling effect for patients who are very sick and reach maximal scores. Also, the index has some problems with missing data.
  • Assessment in Minorities and Elderly: Elderly patients who do not drive will have missing data. Education and reading barriers may also result in missing data.
  • Costs: Unknown

Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale

  • Authors: Jordan A., C. Manniche, C. Mosdal, C. Hindsberger (1998)
  • Administration: 15-item questionnaire.
  • Constructs Measured: Neck dysfunction for individuals with chronic neck pain..
  • Reliability and Validity: Test-retest reliability was excellent. Validity was measured using compaisons of the scale score with self-reported pain and physician assessment. Correlation coefficients were high (>0.8).
  • Assessment in Minorities and Elderly: None.
  • Costs: Unknown

Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire

  • Authors: Leak A.M., J. Cooper, S. Dyer, K.A. Williams, L. Turner-Stokes, A.O. Frank (1994)
  • Administration: Nine five-part questions.
  • Constructs Measured: Neck disability in patients with long-term neck pain.
  • Reliability and Validity: Three-day test-retest reliability was good. No validation studies reported.
  • Assessment in Minorities and Elderly: Rheumatologic patients up to age 85 were tested. Driving questions may not pertain to elderly.
  • Costs: Unknown

Neck Pain and Disability Scale

  • Authors: Wheeler A.H., P. Goolkasian, A.C. Baird, B.V. Darden (1999)
  • Administration: 20-item self-assessed questionnaire using a visual analogue scale..
  • Constructs Measured: Four dimensions were identified: neck problems, pain intensity, emotional and cognitive effects of pain, and interference with life activities.
  • Reliability and Validity: Reliabiltiy of the entire scale was excellent, but was not determinedseparately for each of the dimensions. No validity comparisons have been made.
  • Assessment in Minorities and Elderly: None, although the initial group had an average age of 61.
  • Costs: Unknown

Patient-Specific Functional Scale Self-Reports with Neck Dysfunction

  • Authors: Westaway M.D., P.W. Stratford, J.M. Binkley (1998)
  • Administration: Patients list activities which they are unable to do or have difficulty with performing. Activities are ranked according to a dysfunction level on a scale of 0 (unable to do) to 10 (no problems). Three sections: Pain-affected activities, functional limitations, Pain intensity.
  • Constructs Measured: None, since patients self-define the items reported.
  • Reliability and Validity: Total score are correlated with pain scores and the Neck Disability Index. Comparisons between patients is nearly impossible. 72-hour test-retest reliability is high. The scale is very responsive to changes for a patient with time.
  • Assessment in Minorities and Elderly: None.
  • Costs: Unknown

References

Jordan A., C. Manniche, C. Mosdal, C. Hindsberger (1998) The Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale: a study of reliability and validity. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics 21(8):520-7.

Leak A.M., J. Cooper, S. Dyer, K.A. Williams, L. Turner-Stokes, A.O. Frank (1994) The Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire, devised to measure neck pain and disability. British Journal of Rheumatology. 33(5):469-74.

Pietrobon R., R.R. Coeytaux, T.S. Carey, W.J. Richardson, R.F. DeVellis (2002) Standard scales for measurement of functional outcome for cervical pain or dysfunction: A systematic review. SPINE 27(5), 515-522.

Vernon H., S. Mior (1991) The Neck Disability Index: a study of reliability and validity. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics. 14(7):409-15.

Vernon H., S. Mior (1994) The Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire, devised to measure neck pain and disability. British Journal of Rheumatology 33(12):1203-4.

Westaway M.D., P.W. Stratford, J.M. Binkley (1998) The patient-specific functional scale: validation of its use in persons with neck dysfunction. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 27(5):331-8.

Wheeler A.H., P. Goolkasian, A.C. Baird, B.V. Darden (1999) Development of the Neck Pain and Disability Scale. Item analysis, face, and criterion-related validity. SPINE 24(13):1290-4.

If you know of a measurement tool that should be included in this list please contact the Measurement Tools Site administrator: Mark Geesey

 
 
 

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