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Self-Efficacy for Rehabilitation Outcome Scale


Waldrop D, Lightsey OR, Ethington CA, Woemmel CA, Coke AL (2001)

Background and Development:

The Self-Efficacy for Rehabilitation Outcome Scale (SER) was developed to test whether self efficacy can affect rehabilitation outcome among patients who are recovering from orthopedic reconstructive or replacement hip or knee surgery.  The 12 items on the scale measure the patient's beliefs about whether he/she can perform behaviors typical in physical rehabilitation for knee and hip surgery.  The SER was developed in conjunction with rehabilitation psychologists and and physical and occupational therapists.  Each item is rated from 0 (I cannot do) to 10 (certain I can do).  The final SER score is the mean of the 12 items.

Cronbach coefficient alpha for the scale was 0.94.  The SER was positively correlated (p<0.01) with other measures of patient optimism, self confidence, and functional independence upon discharge.

Assessment in Elderly Populations:

The age range for the initial population used to test the SER was 39 to 93 years with a mean age of 73 years.  Patient age was not correlated with SER score.

Assessment in Minority Populations:

18 of the 105 patients in the initial population were Black.  No analyses based on race were conducted.

Subsequent Studies:

Stevens et al. (2005) tested a Dutch version of the SER.  They report that the overall reliability is excellent: Cronbach alpha 0.94.  In addition they report two subscales of the SER with Cronbach alphas of 0.94 and 0.87.  These sub-scales represent factors associated with ‘self-efficacy in overcoming barriers’ and ‘self-efficacy for rehabilitation therapy exercises’.

Design Strengths and Weaknesses:

The SER score explained only a small amount of the variance in rehabilitation outcome (3%), however, all outcome expectations accounted for only 4% of the rehabilitation outcome variance.  The SER has excellent reliability and external validity.

Contact Information:

The 12 items of the SER are available as a table in Stevens et al. (2005).


Stevens M, van den Akker-Scheek I, van Horn JR (2005) A Dutch translation of the Self-Efficacy for Rehabilitation Outcome Scale (SER): A first impression on reliability and validity.  Patient Education and Counseling Vol 58(2): 121-126.

Waldrop D, Lightsey OR, Ethington CA, Woemmel CA, Coke AL (2001) Self-efficacy, optimism, health competence and recovery from orthopedic surgery. J Couns Psychol 48:233–8.

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