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Well-being Enquiry for Diabetics


E. Mannucci, V. Ricca, G. Bardini, C.M. Rotella (1996)

Background and Development:

The WED is a self-reported measurement tool containing 50 items providing an evaluation of four areas of quality of life: symptoms, discomfort, serenity, and impact. These subscales were derived from an a priori categorization rather than from a statistical analysis. The questionnaire was validated with 267 patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach’s a, ranged from 0.81 to 0.84 for the four subscales, and 0.93 for the WED total score. Factor analysis confirmed the homogeneity of the Symptoms and Discomfort subscales, and identified three factors each for the Serenity and Impact subscales. Retests within 15-60 days showed strong correlation with the original scores for all four subscales and the total score. External validity was analyzed by comparison with the DQOL total score and other psychometric measures. Correlations were generally good to excellent with high significance (?<0.01). Significant differences in mean scores were observed. Patients with type 2 diabetes scored lower than patients with type 1 diabetes. Patients with chronic complications of diabetes showed lower scores compared to patients without complications. Patients with mental disorders scored lower than patients who were not affected by mental disorders, especially on the Serenity subscale..

Assessment in Elderly Populations:

Validity and reliability of the WED has not been studied in elderly populations.

Assessment in Minority Populations:

No studies involving minority populations have been conducted.

Subsequent Studies:

No subsequent studies using the WED have been found.

Design Strengths and Weaknesses:

In a review of several diabetes-related health assessment measures, Garratt et al. (2002) state that the WED is a reliable measure, although validation by comparison with other measures is not as good as some other measures they reviewed.

Contact Information:

The entire questionnaire along with scoring details is published as an appendix to Mannucci et al. (1996). An Italian translation of the questionnaire is available, upon request, from the authors.
Dr. Carlo M. Rotella
Sezione Malattie del Metabolismo e Diabetologia
Viale Pieraccini 6
I-50134 Firenze, Italy


Garratt, A.M., L. Schmidt, and R. Fitzpatrick (2002) Patient-assessed health outcome measures for diabetes: a structured review. Diabetes Med., 19, 1-11.

Mannucci, E., V. Ricca, G. Bardini, C.M. Rotella (1996) Well-being enquiry for diabetics: a new measure of diabetes-related quality of life. Diab. Nutr. Metab. 9, 89-102.

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