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Department of Microbiology and Immunology

Zihai Li, MD, PhD

Dr. Zihai LiChairman and Professor
Department of Microbiology & Immunology

Program Leader
Cancer Immunology Program
Hollings Cancer Center
Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC)

Dr. Li received his medical degree from Henan Medical University and Peking Union Medical College, and his Ph.D. in immunology at Mount Sinai School of Medicine. He did his residency training in internal medicine at Montefiore Medical Center of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and completed his fellowship in medical oncology at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center/University of Washington, Seattle.   

[Zihai Li lab home page]

Contact Info
Office: (843) 792-5342
HCC Room HO-612F

Areas of Expertise
Cancer immunology; immune tolerance; endoplasmic reticulum chaperones in cancer biology and therapy.

Dr. Zihai Li is a board-certified medical oncologist and an expert in the field of cancer immunology, chaperone biology and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. His research group has made fundamental contributions in the area of GP96/GRP94. They discovered the ATPase activity of GP96, proved its roles in chaperoning antigenic peptides, genetically mapped a majority of its key clients (including multiple Toll-like receptors, integrins, Wnt co-receptor LRP5/6, GARP, CD91 and GP-Ib-IX-V complex), pinpointed its client-binding domain, established its co-chaperone CNPY3, and illuminated its functions in several key biological processes (hematopoiesis, innate immunity, tolerance, anti-cancer immunity, oncogenesis, etc.).  Dr. Li is the principal investigator for multiple Research Project Grants (R01s), as well as a Research Program Project Grant (P01) from the National Institutes of Health. He is a clinical scholar of the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society and an elected member of the American Society of Clinical Investigation.

The current work of the Li laboratory focuses on developing better immunotherapeutics in the forms of antibodies, adoptive T cell transfer and immune checkpoint blockers, aiming to reverse and reprogram the tolerogenic tumor microenvironment for cancer cure. Fundamental mechanisms of immune regulation are being studied in parallel.

Mentoring Philosophy
Dr. Li strongly values team science and has conducted most of his work collaboratively. Mentorship and education are cornerstones in Dr. Li’s laboratory. Since 1999, he has mentored 59 trainees and faculty (1 MS student, 26 PhD students, 3 MD/PhD students, 15 Postdoctoral Fellows, 1 MD, 4 Clinical Fellows and 9 junior faculty). Fourteen of his former mentees currently hold academic faculty positions with active research career components. Dr. Li received the Peggy Schachte Research Mentor Award, the MUSC’s top honor for outstanding research mentorship in 2016.

Members of Dr. Li’s laboratory take pride in sharing their expertise with trainees at all levels including graduate students, medical residents, clinical fellows and postdoctoral fellows. Trainees are expected to be original and hardworking, independent and interactive. They are encouraged to choose projects under the general conceptual frame in the laboratory and are expected to function at a high level.

Perspective job applicants and students please send your CV and description of your research interests to Dr. Li (

Recent Publications | Additional Publications

Wallace CH, Wu BX, Salem M, Ansa-Addo EA, Metelli A, Sun S, Gilkeson G, Shlomchik MJ, Liu B, Li Z. (2018) B lymphocytes confer immune tolerance via cell surface GARP-TGF-β complex. JCI Insight.  doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.99863. [pdf]

Metelli A, Salem M, Wallace CH, Wu BX, Li A, Li X, Li Z. (2018) Immunoregulatory functions and the therapeutic implications of GARP-TGF-β in inflammation and cancer. J Hematol Oncol.  doi: 10.1186/s13045-018-0570-z. Review. [pdf]

Wrangle JM, Patterson A, Johnson CB, Neitzke DJ, Mehrotra S, Denlinger CE, Paulos CM, Li Z, Cole DJ, Rubinstein MP. (2018) IL-2 and Beyond in Cancer Immunotherapy. J Interferon Cytokine Res. doi: 10.1089/jir.2017.0101 [pdf]

Rachidi S, Wallace K, Li H, Lautenschlaeger T, Li Z. (2018) Postdiagnosis aspirin use and overall survival in patients with melanoma. J Am Acad Dermatol. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2017.12.076. [pdf]

Kim DS, Song L, Wang J, Wu H, Gu G, Sugi Y, Li Z, Wang H. (2018) GRP94 Is an Essential Regulator of Pancreatic β-Cell Development, Mass, and Function in Male Mice. Endocrinology. doi: 10.1210/en.2017-00685 [pdf]

Huck JD, Que NL, Hong F, Li Z, Gewirth DT. (2017) Structural and Functional Analysis of GRP94 in the Closed State Reveals an Essential Role for the Pre-N Domain and a Potential Client-Binding Site. Cell Rep. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.08.079 [pdf]

Wu BX, Li A, Lei L, Kaneko S, Wallace C, Li X, Li Z. (2017) Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant (GARP) positively regulates transforming growth factor (TGF) β3 and is essential for mouse palatogenesis. J Biol Chem.  doi: 10.1074/jbc.M117.797613.  [pdf]

Hong F, Liu B, Wu BX, Morreall J, Roth B, Davies C, Sun S, Diehl JA, Li Z. (2017) CNPY2 is a key initiator of the PERK-CHOP pathway of the unfolded protein response. Nat Struct Mol Biol. doi: 10.1038/nsmb.3458.  [pdf]

Rachidi S, Metelli A, Riesenberg B, Wu BX, Nelson MH, Wallace C, Paulos CM, Rubinstein MP, Garrett-Mayer E, Hennig M, Bearden DW, Yang Y, Liu B and Li Z (2017) Platelets subvert T cell immunity against cancer via GARP-TGFbeta axis. Sci Immunol 2:eaai7911 (featured in the May 2017 cover) [pdf]

Wang J, Yuan R, Song W, Sun J, Liu D, Li Z (2017) PD-1, PD-L1 (B7-H1) and Tumor-Site Immune Modulation Therapy: The Historical Perspective. J Hematol Oncol 10(1):34. doi: 10.1186/s13045-017-0403-5. Review. [pdf

Hong F, Mohammad Rachidi S, Lundgren D, Han D, Huang X, Zhao H, Kimura Y, Hirano H, Ohara O, Udono H, Meng S, Liu B, Li Z (2017) Mapping the Interactome of a Major Mammalian Endoplasmic Reticulum Heat Shock Protein 90. PLoS One 12(1):e0169260. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169260. [pdf

Metelli A, Wu BX, Fugle CW, Rachidi S, Sun S, Zhang Y, Wu J, Tomlinson S, Howe PH, Yang Y, Garrett-Mayer E, Liu B, Li Z (2016) Surface Expression of TGFβ Docking Receptor GARP Promotes Oncogenesis and Immune Tolerance in Breast Cancer. Cancer Res 76(24):7106-7117. [pdf]

Fugle CW, Zhang Y, Hong F, Sun S, Westwater C, Rachidi S, Yu H, Garret-Mayer E, Kirkwood K, Liu B, Li Z (2016) CD24 blunts oral squamous cancer development and dampens the functional expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Oncoimmunology 5(10):e1226719. [pdf]

Rachidi S, Sun S, Wu BX, Jones E,  Drake RR, Ogretmen B, Cowart LA, Clarke CJ, Hannun YA, Chiosos G, Liu B,  Li Z (2015) Endoplasmic Reticulum Heat Shock Protein gp96 Maintains Liver Homeostasis and Promotes Hepatocellular Carcinogenesis. J Hepatol Apr 62 (4):879-88. [pdf]

Zhang Y, Wu BX, Metelli A, Thaxton JE, Hong F, Rachidi S, Ansa-Addo E, Sun S, Vasu C, Yang Y, Liu B, Li Z (2015) GP96 is a GARP Chaperone and Controls Regulatory T Cell Functions. J Clin Invest Feb 2;125 (2):859-69. [pdf]

Zhang J, Fu S, Sun S, Li Z Guo B (2014)  Inflammasome Activation has an Important Role in the Development of Spontaneous Colitis. Mucosal Immunology 29 January [pdf]

Thaxton JE, Liu B, Zheng P, Liu Y, Li Z (2014) Deletion of CD 24 Impairs Development of Heat Shock Protein gp96-Driven Autoimmune Disease Through Expansion of Myeloid-Derived Supressor Cells. J Immunol 192(12):5679-86. [pdf]

Morales C, Rachidi S, Hong F, Sun S, Ouyang X, Wallace C, Zhang Y, Garret-Mayer E, Wu J, Liu B, Li Z (2014) Immune Chaperone gp96 Drives the Contribuitons of Macrophages to Inflammatory Colon Tumorigenesis. Cancer Res 74(2):446-59. [pdf]

Zhang Y, Helke KL, Coelho SG, Valencia JC, Hearing VJ, Sun S, Liu B, Li Z (2014) Essential Role of the Molecular Chaperone gp96 in Regulating Melanogenesis. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res 27(1):82-9. [pdf]

Liu G, Lu S, Wang X, Page ST, Plymate SR, Higano CS, Zhang X, Greenberg NM, Li Z and Wu JD (2013) Soluble NKG2D Ligand Perturbs NK cell Peripheral Homeostasis and Accelerates Progression of Prostate Carcinoma. J Clin Invest. 123(10):4410-4422. [pdf]

Liu B, Staron M, Hong F, Wu BX, Sun S, Morales C, Crosson CE, Tomlinson S, Kim I, D Wu, Li Z (2013) Essential Roles of grp94 in Gut Homeostasis via Chaperoning Canonical Wnt Pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 110(17):6877-82. [pdf]

Rachidi SM, Qin T, Sun S, Zheng JW, Li Z (2013) Molecular Profiling of Multiple Human Cancers defines an inflammatory cancer-associated molecular pattern and uncovers KPNA2 as a uniform poor prognostic marker. PLoS ONE, 8(3):e57911. [pdf]

An N, Lin YW, Mahajan S, Kellner JN, Wang Y, Li Z, Kraft AS, Kang Y (2013) Pim1 serine/threonine Kinase Regulates the Number and Functions of Murine Hematopoietic Stem Cells. Stem Cells, doi: 10.1002/stem.1369. [pdf]

Hong F, Liu B, Chiosis G, Gewirth DT and Li Z (2013) Αlpha 7 helix region of αlpha I domain is crucial for integrin binding to ER chaperone gp96: a potential therapeutic target for cancer metastasis. J Biol Chem 288 (25):18243-8. [pdf]

Wu S, Dole K, Hong F, Noman AS, Isaacs J, Liu B, Li Z. (2012) gp96-independent inhibition of endotoxin response by chaperone-based peptide inhibitors. J Biol Chem 287(24): 19896-903.  [pdf]

Wu S, Hong F, Gewirth D, Guo B, Liu B, Li Z. (2012) The molecular chaperone gp96/GRP94 interacts with Toll-like receptors and integrins via its C-terminal hydrophobic domain. J Biol Chem 287(9):6735-42. [pdf]

Staron M, Wu S, Hong F, Stojanovic A, Du X, Bona R, Liu B, Li Z.(2011) Heat-shock protein gp96/grp94 is an essential chaperone for the platelet glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex. Blood 2011 117(26):7136-44. [pdf]

Audouard C, Le Masson F, Charry C, Li Z, Christians ES (2011) Oocyte–Targeted Deletion Reveals That Hsp90b1 Is Needed for the Completion of First Mitosis in Mouse Zygotes. PLoS ONE 6:2.10.1371/journal.pone.0017109. [pdf]

Usmani S, Bona RD, Chiosis G and Li Z (2010) The anti-myeloma activity of a novel purine scaffold HSP90 inhibitor PU-H71 is via inhibition of both HSP90A and HSP90B1. J Hematol Oncol 3:40. doi:10.1186/1756-8722-3-40. [pdf]

Liu B, Yang Y, Qiu Z, Staron M, Hong F, Li Y, Wu S, Li Y, Hao B, Bona R, Han D, Li Z. (2010) Folding of Toll-like receptors by the HSP90 paralogue gp96 requires a substrate-specific cochaperone. Nature Commun 2010 Sep;1(6):doi:10.1038/ncomms1070. [pdf]

Han JM, Kwon NH, Lee JY, Jeong SJ, Jung HJ, Kim HR, Li Z, Kim S (2010) Identification of gp96 as a novel target for treatment of autoimmune disease in mice. PLoS One 5(3):e9792. [pdf]

Staron M, Yang Y, Liu B, Li J, Shen Y, Zúñiga-Pflücker JC, Aguila HL, Goldschneider I, Li Z (2010) gp96, an endoplasmic reticulum master chaperone for integrins and Toll-like receptors, selectively regulates early T and B lymphopoiesis. Blood 115(12):2380-90. [pdf]

Li Y, Zeng H, Xu RH, Liu B, Li Z (2009) Vaccination with human pluripotent stem cells generates a broad spectrum of immunological and clinical responses against colon cancer. Stem Cells 27(12):3103-11. [pdf]

Morales C, Wu S, Yang Y, Hao B, Li Z (2009) Drosophila glycoprotein 93 Is an ortholog of mammalian heat shock protein gp96 (grp94, HSP90b1, HSPC4) and retains disulfide bond-independent chaperone function for TLRs and integrins. J Immunol 183(8):5121-8. [pdf]

Liu B, Li Z (2008) Endoplasmic reticulum HSP90b1 (gp96, grp94) optimizes B-cell function via chaperoning integrin and TLR but not immunoglobulin. Blood 112(4):1223-30. [pdf]

Qiao Y, Liu B, Li Z (2008) Activation of NK cells by extracellular heat shock protein 70 through induction of NKG2D ligands on dendritic cells. Cancer Immun 8:12. [pdf]

Yang Y, Liu B, Dai J, Srivastava PK, Zammit DJ, Lefrancois L, Li Z (2007) Heat shock protein gp96 is a master chaperone for Toll-like receptors and is important in the innate function of macrophages. Immunity 26(2):215-26. [pdf]

Dai J, Liu B, Ngoi SM, Sun S, Vella AT, Li Z (2007) TLR4 Hyperresponsiveness via cell surface expression of heat shock protein gp96 potentiates suppressive function of regulatory T cells. J Immunol 178(5):3219-25. [pdf]

Dai J, Liu B, Cua DJ, Li Z (2007) Essential roles of IL-12 and dendritic cells but not IL-23 and macrophages in lupus-like diseases initiated by cell surface HSP gp96. Eur J Immunol 37(3):706-715. [pdf]

Liu B, Yang Y, Dai J, Medzhitov R, Freudenberg MA, Zhang PL, Li Z. (2006) TLR4 up-regulation at protein or gene level is pathogenic for lupus-like autoimmune disease. J Immunol 177(10):6880-8. [pdf]

Li Z, Qiao Y, Liu B, Laska EJ, et al. (2005) Combination of imatinib mesylate with autologous leukocyte-derived heat shock protein 70 and chronic myelogenous leukemia. Clin Cancer Res 11(12):4460-8.[pdf]

Yang Y, Li Z (2005) Roles of heat shock protein gp96 in the ER quality control: redundant or unique function? Mol Cells 20(2):173-82. [pdf]

Zheng H and Li Z (2004) Cutting Edge: Cross-presentation of cell-associated antigens to MHC class I molecule is regulated by a major transcription factor for molecular chaperones. J Immunol 173(10):5929-33. [pdf]

Millar DG, Garza KM, Odermatt B, Elford AR, Li Z and Ohashi PS (2003) Hsp70 promotes antigen presenting cell function and converts T cell tolerance to autoimmunity in vivo. Nat Med 9(12):1469 –1476. [pdf]

Liu B, Dai J, Zheng H, Stoilova D, Sun S and Li Z (2003) Cell surface expression of an endoplasmic reticulum resident heat shock protein gp96 triggers MyD88-dependent systemic autoimmune diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:15824-15829. [pdf]

Dai J, Liu B, Caudill MM, Zheng H, Qiao Y, Podack E AND Li Z (2003) Cell surface expression of heat shock protein gp96 enhances cross-presentation of cellular antigens and the generation of tumor-specific T cell memory. Cancer Immun 3:1-11. [pdf]

Li Z, Dai J, Zheng H, Liu B and Caudill M (2002) An integrated view of the roles and mechanisms of heat shock protein gp96-peptide complex in eliciting immune response. Front Biosci 7:731-751. [pdf]

Li Z, Menoret A and Srivastava PK (2002) Roles of heat shock proteins in antigen presentation and cross-presentation. Curr Opin Immunol 14:45-51. [pdf]

Zheng H, Dai J, Stoilova D and Li Z (2001) Surface targeting of an intracellular heat shock protein gp96 induces dendritic cell maturation and anti-tumor immunity. J Immunol 167:6731-6735. [pdf]

Caudill M and Li Z (2001) HSPPC-96: a personalized cancer vaccine. Exp Opin Bio Ther 1(3):539-548. [pdf]

Research Support

Title:  Integration of Inflammation and Cancer by Molecular Chaperone
Agency: NCI, NIH (R01CA213290-02)
Role: PI
Funding Period: 01/01/2017-12/31/2021

Title:  Novel Mechanisms of UPR Sensing and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease 
Agency: NIDDK, NIH (R01DK105033)
Role: PI
Funding Period: 12/10/2015-11/30/2020

Title:  Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperones in Cancer Biology and Therapy   
Agency: NCI, NIH (P01CA186866)
Role: PI

Funding Period: 9/01/2015 – 8/31/2020

Title: Thrombocytes in Cancer Immunity
Agency: NCI, NIH (1R01CA188419)
Role: PI
Funding Period: 4/01/2015 – 4/1/2020

Title: Molecular Chaperones and Immune Tolerance
Agency: NIAID, NIH (2R01AI077283)
Role: PI
Funding Period: 4/01/2017 – 3/31/2022

Title: Program in Immunology Research and Entrepreneurship (PIRE)
Agency: NIAID, NIH (T32AI132164)
Role: Co-Director
Funding Period: 7/01/2017 - 6/30/2022

Title: Cancer Support Grant for Hollings Cancer Center
Agency: NCI, NIH (5P30CA138313)
Role: Program Leader of the Cancer Immunology Program (PI Dr. Gustave Leone)
Funding Period: 4/01/2009-8/31/2019

Title: Cancer Immunotherapy by the Combination of GARP Inhibition and Antagonist Antibodies against Immune Checkpoints
Company: Bristol Myers Squibb
Role: PI
Funding Period: 9/15/2017 - 9/14/2019

Title: MUSC/HCC Paul Calabresi Clinical Oncology Training Program Plan
Agency: NCI/NIH (1 K12 CA157688-01A1)
Role: Member of the Curriculum Subcommittee (PI: Dr. Michael Lilly)
Funding Period: 4/01/2013 – 3/31/2018

Title: Elucidating Mechanisms of Treatment Relapse for Interferon-Free HCV Therapy
Agency: NIAID, NIH (K08AI121348)
Role: Mentor (PI: Dr. Eric Meissner)
Funding Period: 1/01/2016 - 12/31/2021

Title: South Carolina Center of Economic Excellence Endowed Program in Stem Cell Research
Agency: State of South Carolina USA
Role: PI
Funding Period: 07/2010-ongoing commitment

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