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  • NC NM4R QBAR Core image

    The Quantitative Behavioral Assessment and Rehabilitation Core

    Steve Kautz, PhD, Director

  • NC NM4R BSTIM Core image

    The Brain Stimulation Core

    Mark S. George, MD, Director

  • NC NM4R Neuroimaging Core image

    The Neuroimaging Core

    Truman Brown, PhD, Director

National Center of Neuromodulation for Rehabilitation

NC NM4R Logo

By their very nature, neuromodulation technologies, when used in the clinical context or in basic research, are tools of discovery. Basic and translational research in brain stimulation is advancing on many fronts. Much of this work uses stimulation techniques as probes to uncover the physiological basis and circuitry underlying changes in plasticity, gene expression, neurochemical release, and sensorimotor and higher cognitive and affective functions. neuromodulation technologies have been especially valuable in ‘brain mapping,’ identifying nodes in distributed networks whose modulation enhances or interferes with mental experience and behavior. Indeed, by mimicking functional lesions, these technologies allow for experimental testing of the role of specific brain regions in subserving distinct aspects of mental life. Similarly, these same techniques have been used productively to explore the neurocircuitry in elemental aspects of behavior (e.g., eye movements) or in regulation of neurochemical release.

It is fair to say, however, that the field of neuromodulation is in its infancy. Indeed, clinical applications have been tested largely without rational development. For example, we know much more about optimal forms of stimulation for cardiac muscle than we do for brain tissue. The absence of rational development reflects an inadequate basic science knowledge base, with large holes in our understanding of the biophysics of different forms of stimulation, limited capacity to quantify current density paths, and absence of parametric studies of the effects of stimulation on a host of biological and behavioral parameters. Thus, neuromodulation is a field of unusual promise, offering new tools for brain discovery and a new class of therapeutics. Yet, it is also a field whose clinical applications are spread across neurology, neurosurgery, psychiatry and rehabilitation, and whose basic research approaches have yet to integrate into an identified specialty, like pharmacology. The National Center of NM4R will serve as a focal point for integrating and developing this new science, with a specific focus on how to use this knowledge to enhance rehabilitation. It will crucially support investigators in use of these tools as research methods or potential treatments. The center will facilitate ‘rational development’ and use of neuromodulation methods in rehabilitation. 

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation


An NIH Medical Rehabilitation Research Network center
at the Medical University of South Carolina

The National Center of Neuromodulation for Rehabilitation (NC NM4R) is supported by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health & Human Development of the National Institutes of Health under award number P2CHD086844. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

News and Events


Spring advanced workshop
Evoked Potential Operant Conditioning, March 27-29

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, March 28-29

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation, March 29-30


The National Center for Adaptive Neurotechnologies and The National Center of Neuromodulation for Rehabilitation invite you to attend the 7th Operant Conditioning Meeting in Charleston, SC, March 26 and 27—Registration extended!


Request NC NM4R services through our online system


University of Michigan Kresge Hearing Research Institute publishes neuromodulatory tinnitus treatment in Science Translation Medicine journal, UMich blog, Gizmodo article


National Institutes of Health announce BRAIN Initiative R01 funding opportunity, “Biology and Biophysics of Neural Stimulation”


Archived presentations from NIH Multimodal Brain Stimulation Speaker Series are available for viewing




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